- Published: Saturday, 24 April 2010 20:43
One of the first stages in the development of a new tool (software or hardware) is a functional specification. The functional specification matures in discussions between the developers (department of R&D) and the customer representatives (often the departments of marketing and sales).
Of course a functional specification is useful: it is very hard to develop something new without an idea of how the new tool will be used and what it will be compared with. However, defining a functional specification can also be taken too far. In some organizations, the functional specifications are spelled out in the tiniest details. At the end of a long formal procedure, the book of specifications is signed like a contract between marketing and development. The development can only be started when the list of signatures is complete and will be performed in splendid isolation from the world of potential users. Why do organizations do specifications this way? It is often an attempt to separate the responsibilities of the departments, so that if anything fails the appropriate party can be blamed. If the final product does not meet the functional specifications, this can be blamed on the developers. And if the product does not succeed even though it meets all the functional specifications, this will be blamed on marketing.
I have a serious problem with this approach: using this procedure, how can one ensure that the product will be useful? After two years without interaction, development may produce exactly what marketing asked for (making all deadlines and within budget), but the market has changed and does no longer need the designed product. Or technology has changed, and better specifications would have been within reach and are offered by the competition. Or maybe marketing truly made a mistake, and asked for something the world is not waiting for. In these cases, clearly the development department can not be blamed! But if you develop an obsolete product this way, where does that leave the organization as a whole? And if this is not the best solution for the organization as a whole, will it be good for the development department? Even though everyone did exactly what was expected, people may be laid off because development costs can not be recovered.
The solution is, as often, to keep a middle road. Using e.g. Agile or LEAN development methods, developers can stay in constant communication with marketing. Iterative and modular design procedures can be used to verify that the new tool does what it should, without relying on the capacity of people to describe specifications in words beforehand. And because the communication with the market is not lost during the development process, the tool will have a significantly higher chance of actually being useful at the moment of introduction.
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